15 Different Parts of Lathe Machine and Their Function

A lathe is a machine tool that uses a cutting tool to remove material from the surface of the workpiece which is placed in the chuck to hold the workpiece and feed to the workpiece provided by the tool to remove the material. It is the most versatile and widely used machine in industries, institutes, etc.

Lathe Machine Parts

A lathe consists of four main parts: the bed, spindle, turret, and tailstock. Briefly, the main spindle holds the material and rotates it. The turret, where the tool is attached, moves to shape the part to be machined. The tailstock supports the long workpiece. Finally, the bed is the base on which the three platforms are mounted.

In the case of NC lathes, the basic configuration is the same, and the NC device and operation screen are also included.

lathe machine parts
Parts of the lathe machine

#1. Bed.

The bed is the foundation of the machine that supports the spindle, turret, and tailstock. If the bed is weak, the spindle and turret mounted on it will be deformed during the movement, making it impossible to perform accurate machining.

Therefore, the design is made with the latest technological capabilities such as material selection and structure design.

#2. Headstock.

Along with the bed, the bearing configuration and balance of the spindle, as well as the rigidity of the headstock, are also important factors in machining accuracy.

The headstock is usually located on the left side of the lathe and is equipped with gears, spindles, chucks, gear speed control levers, and feed controllers. It is mounted in a fixed position on the inner ways, usually at the left end. Using a chuck, it rotates the work.

#3. Tailstock.

The tailstock is a platform mounted on the bed opposite the headstock and has a structure that can be moved in the longitudinal direction. It is used to support the workpiece, and by changing the tip, it can also be used for drilling.

#4. Carriage.

The carriage is located between the headstock and the tailstock and contains an apron, saddle, compound rest, cross slide, and tool post. Moves on the outer ways. Used for mounting and moving most of the cutting tools.

#5. Chuck.

It allows the mounting of difficult workpieces that are not round, square, or triangular.

#6. Feed rod.

The lead screw is used to move the carriage automatically during threading. Used to connect the feed box and slide box, and transmit the speed and power of the feed box to the slide box, so that the slide box achieves longitudinal linear motion.

#7. Lead screw.

The screw is specially set to bend various threads. When bending other surfaces of the workpiece, only smooth screws are used instead of screws. Students should distinguish the difference between a light screw and a lead screw based on the contents of the slide box.

#8. Chip Pan.

It is present at the bottom of the lathe. A chip pan is used to collect the chips that are produced during the lathe operation.

#9. Hand Wheel.

It is the wheel that is operated by hand to move a cross slide, carriage, tailstock, and other parts that have a handwheel.

#10. Cooling device.

The cooling device primarily uses a cooling water pump to suppress the slotted fluid in the water tank and spray it to the cutting location, wash the chips, and lower the cutting temperature. Smoothes the surface to improve tool and service life. Surface processing quality of the workpiece.

#11. Legs.

They are supports that carry the entire weight of the machine over them. The prevailing method is to use cast legs. Both feet are firmly secured to the floor through foundation spots to prevent vibration in the machine.

#12. Slide box.

This is the control box for the feed movement of the lathe. It is furnished with a mechanism that turns the rotary motion of the light rod and the lead screw to the linear motion of the tool post.

#13. Gearbox.

The gearbox Inside the headstock offers multiple speeds with a geometric ratio by moving the levers.

#14. Spindle.

A hole through the headstock to which bar stock can be fed, allows shafts that are up to 2 times the length between lathe centers to be worked on one end at a time.

#15. Cross Slide.

Mounted on the traverse slide of the carriage, and uses a handwheel to feed tools into the workpiece.

#16. Tool Post.

To mount tool holders in which the cutting bits are clamped.

#17. Guideways.

To ensure the accurate movement of tailstock and carriage on the bed comes in outer or inner ways.

#18. Apron.

Attached to the front of the carriage, it has the mechanism and controls for moving the carriage and cross slide.

Lathe Machine Parts Benefits

Now that we know a little more about each individual part, let’s look at some of their benefits:

  • The lathe bed needs to be strong and stable to achieve the best cutting accuracy.
  • The headstock has multiple speeds so you can customize your project depending on the material you are using
  • The carriage moves easily along the bed for smooth motion
  • The tailstock provides stability and support to the workpiece

The Headstock is Vital

The headstock is the most important part of a lathe, so it’s important to keep the components inside well-lubricated. If the bearings become worn or dirty, they can cause damage to the spindle. This can lead to further damage to other components and effect the performance of your lathe.

Headstock parts are available for older machines, but it’s best to avoid any unnecessary wear to these parts, if possible. Instead, try to maintain your machine regularly so that you don’t have to replace any parts prematurely.


What Are The Main Parts Of a Lathe?

While there are different types of lathes, most feature a few basic parts to facilitate their operations.
1. Bed.
2. Headstock
3. Tailstock
4. Carriage
5. Legs.
6. Cross Slide
7. Saddle.
8. Apron.

What Are The 6 Major Components Of The Lathe?

There are six major parts of a lathe machine. These are the bed, the headstock assembly, the main spindle, the tailstock, the carriage, and overload safety devices.

Which Tool Is Used In Lathe Machine?

The lathe machine tools can be classified into different categories. The most common classifications include: Use: turning tool, boring tool, chamfering tool, grooving tool, etc. Material: high-speed steel tool, carbide tool, diamond blade, other materials, etc.

What Is The Size Of the Lathe Machine?

The general size is about a 15-inch swing with 36 to 48 inches between centers. Many tool room lathes are used for special tool and die production due to the high accuracy of the machine.