What is Machine Design?- Types, and Procedure

Design and engineering of machines is a branch in which in addition to the knowledge of mathematics and science, the ability is required for creative imagination and artistic understanding.

Machine design engineering comprises designing, manufacturing, and testing or operating machines used in all branches of industry such as petroleum, chemical, textile, paper pulp, cement, coal mines, etc. A machine designer has to possess knowledge of basic sciences like physics and chemistry and familiarity with the technology of machine components such as motors, gears, pulleys, etc.

However, machine design is not merely applied science or engineering, but an art in which aesthetic sense plays a very important part. Considerable imagination is required for constructing a suitable mechanism for any given purpose. Hence, machine design is a blend of engineering and art.

Computers are now widely used in machine design work because they simplify the complex mathematical operations involved.

What Is Machine Design?

Machine design is a specialized discipline within mechanical engineering that focuses on the creation and development of machines and mechanical systems. It involves the application of engineering design principles, scientific knowledge, and design techniques to create machines that meet specific requirements and perform desired functions.

Machine design encompasses various aspects such as selecting appropriate materials, determining optimal dimensions and configurations, designing mechanical components, ensuring structural integrity, and considering factors like safety, reliability, and efficiency.

It requires a deep understanding of mechanical principles, materials science, kinematics, dynamics, and manufacturing processes.

Machine design plays a crucial role in industries such as manufacturing, transportation, agriculture, and many others, where the design and development of efficient and reliable machines are essential for productivity and advancement.

Machine Design

Types of Machine Design

As manufacturing technology evolves, we’ve seen impressive leaps when it comes to the creativity and complexity of machine design and mechanical engineering.

Machine elements that once seemed impossible are now commonplace in today’s manufacturing world, and while we all want to strive to be at the forefront of innovation, we can also make use of existing technology to get us moving in the right direction.

This is where the fundamentals of machine design come in, and they can be broken down into three categories:

  • Adaptive Design,
  • Developmental Design
  • New Design.

1. Adaptive Design

One of the most basic, but widely used types of machine design is Adaptive Design. Think of the saying “don’t reinvent the wheel”. Oftentimes, there is a machine component or design element that already exists and has been widely embraced that could be adapted to suit your purposes.

Adaptive Design utilizes basic features and tweaks them slightly to better fit a particular application. Modifying technology that has already been proven effective can save engineers time and businesses money, and is often far more effective than trying to design apart from scratch.

2. Developmental Design

Similar to Adaptive Design, Developmental Design uses existing concepts and technology but adds or combines new machine elements and components to create something unique.

An example often referred to in Developmental Design is the motorcycle, which is essentially the marriage between a bicycle and a combustion engine.

The motorcycle was certainly a massive development in manufacturing technology and machine design, but it relies on preexisting mechanical elements to serve as the building blocks for something new.

3. New Design

The vast majority of machine design will fall into the previous two categories, but there are still new and unique parts and technology being created all the time. These one-of-a-kind innovations would be considered New Design, where engineers and designers come up with something entirely original.

This is far less common, and often requires a great deal of time, money, and research. Because we live in a world of shared knowledge and technology, it is usually more productive and efficient to modify that which already exists,

But with the right idea and the proper experience, elements in the New Design space can be extremely lucrative and beneficial to the manufacturing world as a whole.

Designs based on the methods used can be classified as follows:

  • Rational Design: This type of design depends on mathematical formulas of the principle of mechanics.
  • Empirical Design: This type of design depends on empirical formulas based on practice and past experience.
  • Industrial Design: This type of design depends on the product features for manufacturing any machine component in the industry.
  • Optimal design: It is the best design for a given objective function under specified constraints. This can be achieved by reducing undesirable effects.
  • System Design: It is the design of any complicated mechanical system like a motor car.
  • Element Design: It is the design of any part of a mechanical system such as a crankshaft, piston, connecting rod, etc.
  • Computer-Aided Design: This type of design relies on the use of computer systems to aid in the construction, modification, analysis, and optimization of a design.

What are the General Considerations in Machine Design?

The following are general considerations in designing machine components:

1. Type of load and stress due to load

The load on a machine component can act in many ways due to which internal stresses establish.

2. The motion of machine parts or kinematics

The successful operation of any machine depends largely on the simplest arrangement of the parts that will provide the required speed. The speed of the parts can be:

  • Rectilinear motion including unidirectional and recrossing motion.
  • curvilinear motion consisting of rotary, oscillation, and simple harmonic.
  • Steady speed.
  • Constant or variable acceleration.

3. Selection of materials

It is essential that a designer should have an in-depth knowledge of the properties of materials and their behavior in working conditions. Some important features of the materials are strength, durability, flexibility, weight, resistance to heat and corrosion, moldability, welded or hardened, machinability, electrical conductivity, etc.

4. Size and shape of parts

Form and shape are based on decisions. The smallest practical cross-section can use. But it can test that the stresses induced in the designed cross-section are more secure. To design the part of any machine for form and shape.

It is necessary to know the forces that the part must maintain. It is also important to estimate any sudden applied or impact loads that may cause failure.

5. Abrasion resistance and lubrication

There is always a loss of power due to abrasion resistance and it should be noted that the starting friction is greater than the running friction. Therefore, it is necessary that careful attention should be paid to the case of lubrication of all surfaces, which run in contact with others, whether they are in rotating, sliding, or rolling bearings.

6. Convenient and economical features

In designing, the operating characteristics of the machine must be carefully studied. Starting, controlling, and stopping the lever must be located on the basis of convenient handling.

Wear adjustments must provide to employ various take-up devices and to organize them so that the alignment of the parts is preserved. If parts are replaced for different products or replaced due to wear or breakage, easy access should provide, and if possible, the need to remove other parts to accomplish this should avoid.

The economical operation of a machine, which is to use for production, or for the processing of materials, must be studied to find out whether it has the maximum capacity to correspond to the production of good work.

7. Use of standard parts

The use of standard parts is closely related to cost, as the cost of standard or stock parts is only one part of the cost of similar parts made to order.

Standard or stock parts should use whenever possible; Parts for which patterns already exist such as gears, pulleys, and bearings.

And parts that can select from regular shop stock such as screws, nuts, and pins. Bolts and studs should be as short as possible to avoid delays in changing drills, reamers, and taps. As well as reducing the number of wrenches required.

8. Safety of operation

Some machines are dangerous to operate, especially those that are fast to insure production at the maximum rate. Therefore, any moving part of a machine, which is within a worker’s zone, is considered a risk of accident and may cause injury.

Therefore, it is necessary that a designer should always provide safety equipment to protect the operator. Safety devices should not interfere with the operation of the machine in any way.

Workshop facilities

A design engineer should be familiar with the limitations of his employer’s workshop. So, as to avoid the need to work in some other workshop. Sometimes it is necessary to plan and supervise the operation of the workshop and to draft methods for casting, handling, and machining special parts.

The number of machines to be manufactured

The number of articles or machines manufactured affects design in many ways. Engineering and shop costs called fixed charges or overhead expenses are distributed over the number of articles manufactured.

If only a few articles are to make, the additional expense is not reasonable unless the machine is large or of some special design. An order calling for a small number of products will not allow for any undue expense in the workshop processes so designers can limit their specifications to standard parts.

Cost of manufacture

The cost of building an article is the most important consideration involved in the design. In some cases, it is very possible that the high cost of an article may immediately prevent it from further consideration.

If an article has been invented and tests of handmade samples have shown that it has commercial value. It is possible to justify the expense of a considerable amount of money in the design and development of automated machines for the production of the article.

Especially if it is Can be sold in large numbers. The objective of the design engineer, under all conditions, should be to minimize manufacturing costs.

9. Assembling

Each machine or structure must assemble as a unit before functioning. Larger units must often assemble in the shop, be tested, and then transported to their place of service. The final location of any machine is important and the design engineer must estimate the exact location and local facilities for manufacture.

How do you design a machine?

Machine design procedures are the written instructions that machine designers use to create a machine. The steps in these procedures can vary, but they typically include:

  • Studying the problem or task at hand
  • Determining the function of the machine
  • Sketching out ideas for a possible design
  • Choosing the best design and creating a prototype
  • Testing the prototype
  • Modifying the design as needed
  • Producing the machine

Machine design procedures typically take into account both the function of the machine and the constraints of its environment. For example, a machine that will be used in a factory might need to be able to withstand harsh conditions like extreme heat and noise.

The length of machine design procedures can vary depending on the machine being produced. For example, a machine for an office building may include only two or three steps while one for a space station might contain twenty-five steps.